A shop that combines the "queueing" experience of shopping in the former Soviet Union with the "crap products" experience of same. Argos is a very old chain of stores in the UK that operates around a catalogue. They sell all kinds of stuff from jewellery to furniture and electronics (but no, or at least few, clothes unlike their mail-order rivals). You pick what you want from the catalogue and either order it by mail, web or phone, or if you're feeling very bored go to one of their outlets and queue up for it.

They sell a lot of exclusive (as in, nowhere else would have them) products that are sometimes very useful and good value. For a lot of things however they are uncompetitive. Argos recently bought the troubled internet store Jungle.com. They are linked in some corporate fashion to the Great Universal Company.

Update: At this time (July 2002), Argos's website locks out Mozilla and Netscape 6 (and Galeon and K-Meleon and Compuserve) users. Needless to say I am never going to purchase anything from them ever again, and I would recommend that no-one else with a shred of common sense should either.

The city-state of Argos, or Hera’s City, as it was known, is one of the lesser-known Greek city-states. Although it is not known extensively in our time, in it’s time, it was a great state. This is why.

GOVERNMENT
When researching the government of Argos, the name of one leader comes up quite often. A man named Temenus was largely responsible for the success of Argos. Shortly after, a tyrant known as Pheidon took control of the city-state. Argos continued to flourish under his rule, with advancements in nearly every facet of society. It was the successive leaders that weakened Argos until it was a shadow of how it had once been.

TRADE
Argos traded extensively with the other city-states. The leading crops grown in Argos were vegetables, tobacco, wheat and corn. These crops were traded to Corinth, for more crops that could support the Argive population. ECONOMY
The economy of Argos was probably the most advanced of its time. In place of using barter to exchange goods, the Argives used coins crafted of silver. These coins were supported by the government, and helped foster a thriving marketplace in Argos.

SOCIAL CLASSES
The social classes of Argos were fairly defined. In order, from people with the most rights to people with the least: Gods and Goddesses, the rich, citizens, non-citizens (women), free slaves, and last, slaves. A citizen was defined as someone who participated in government, and since women were barred from participating in the government, they could not be considered citizens.

ART
The artisans of Argos were quite skilled at what they did, which included metal work, sculpture, pottery, and paintings. They crafted unique armor for the military of the city, and created intricate silver coins for use in trade.

Another art of Greek times, the creation of myths, was also practiced in Argos. The Argives told a story of Argus, a gigantic monster with 100 eyes. Argus was also called Panoptes, which means all-seeing. The goddess Hera assigned Argus to guard her hated rival, the beautiful Princess Lo, a mistress of her husband Zeus. For this reason, the term Argus is still sometimes used to describe a watchful guardian. Acting on orders from Zeus, the god Hermes killed Argus. Hera used Argus’ 100 eyes to decorate the tail of her peacock. This tale was widely known throughout Greece.

ROLE OF WOMEN
Women had no political power in Argos. They had required tasks of burying dead children, taking care of the household for her husband, and bearing more children. This was not uncommon throughout Greece, but things were a little worse for the women of Argos.

RELIGION
Like all of Greece, the people of Argos were polytheistic, believing in flawed human-like gods. A few of the deities were Zeus, Athena and Hermes. The majority of people believed these gods to control nature and fate.

FOREIGN ENEMIES
Argos was a city-state more concerned with what went on within Greece, as opposed to looking beyond, to the Persians, for instance. With Athens and Sparta called for help in the fight against the Persians in 480 BC, Argos refused, and for this reason the city-state was disgraced before all of Greece. When battling within Greece’s borders, Argos’ main enemy was Sparta.

ALLIES
Argos had shifting alliances. At times, they were aligned with Arkadia, Sikyon, Pisa and the Messenians. The most significant ally of all was Athens. They aligned with Athens from time to time to keep the city-state of Sparta from becoming too powerful.

COLONIES
Like other city-states, Argive farmers of the city did not grow grain, instead they grew cash-crops such as olives and wine. Argos established colonies in places more suited to growing grain. These colonies sent back a surplus to support Argos.

ARCHITECTURE
Argive architecture was as great as any to be found in Greece, with possibly the exception of Athens. Argos is thought to be the oldest city-state in all of Greece, having its roots in the Bronze Age. This long-standing history influenced the architecture of the city. Walking down one of the avenues, one would see architecture old and new alike. The older would be less advanced, of course. The newer would have more of an Athenian influence, using columns and arches.

SCIENCE
Science is Argos is not what the city-state is known for. The Argives were more concerned with their military and arts.

CRAFTS AND INDUSTRY
The Argive coins of silver required considerable skill to produce. Artisans created these coins one at a time, a labor-intensive task.

EDUCATION
Argos is not known for its great intellect, or its great military. Some historians think of Argos as a mixture of Athens and Sparta. Athens is known for the great thinking of its citizens, but Argos is not. Boys were sent to school, while girls were not. Basically, the more wealthy your parents were, the more schooling you received. The boys were taught by a slave, called a “paedagogus”, to whom the parents paid a fee.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO GREEK CULTURE
There are two things that Argos gave to Greece that are most remembered. The fist is the little-known system of weights and measures that Argos created. This system was used throughout Greece for most of the empire’s existence. The second contribution has already been discussed, the Argive system of currency. Arguably, you could also say that the various alliances in which Argos took part in changed Greek history.

CONCLUSION
All told, Argos deserves the place it has earned in history. It is a great city-state, but is often over shadowed by the great accomplishments of Athens, Sparta, and Corinth.

node your homework!
Mrs. Judy Spencer
World History
Buena High School
note: I originally wrote this as a sophomore in high school, details and facts should be double checked before use in anything serious. Ever BS a paper? =D

Αργος

Several characters bear this name.

  1. The first Argos was the son of Zeus and Niobe and on his mother's side descended from Oceanus and Tethys (Table 17). Niobe was the first mortal to have children by Zeus. Argos received as his share the sovereignty of the Peloponnese, which he called Argos (a name which stayed attached to the city of that name, and the Argolid, the area around it). He married Evadne, the daughter of Strymon and Neaera (or alternatively of Peitho, a daughter of Oceanus) and had four sons (Table 18 and, to illustrate another tradition, Table 17). Argos was supposed to have introduced the practice of tilling the soil and planting corn into Greece.
     
  2. The best known Argos, generally known by the Latinized form of his name, Argus, was the great-grandson of the first. Some versions of the story give him a single eye, while others say he had four, two looking forward and two backwards. Yet other traditions ascribe to him a large number of eyes all over his body. Endowed with prodigious strength, he freed Arcadia from a bull which was laying the country waste. He then flayed ir and clothed himself in its hide. Next he killed a Satyr which was harming the Arcadians and carrying off their flocks. Then he slew Echidna, the monstrous daughter of Tartarus who was seizing passers-by, by overcoming her in her sleep. Hera then enjoined him to watch over the heifer Io, of whom she was jealous. In order to do this, Argos tethered it to an olive tree which was growing in a sacred wood at Mycenae. Thanks to his many eyes, of which only half were ever shut at one time, he could keep a watch on it. But Hermes was bidden by Zeus to free Io, whom he loved. As usual with Hermes, there are varying accounts of how he achieved this task: sometimes he is said to have killed Argos by throwing a stone from a distance, sometimes to have sent him to sleep by playing to him on Pan pipes; and in another version he plunged him into a magic sleep with his divine wand. In any event Hermes killed Argos. Hera, to give immortality to her faithful servant, moved his eyes to the tail of the bird that was sacred to him, the peacock.
     
  3. The third Argos was the son of Phrixus and Chalciope. He was born and brought up in Colchis, but left to go and claim his inheritance from his grandfather, Athamas. He was shipwrecked on the island of Aria, where he was sheltered by the Argonauts, together with his brothers Phrontis, Melas and Cytissorus. Another version says that he met Jason at the house of Aeetes, in Colchis. It was he who, through the agency of his mother, is said to have brought about the first meeting between Jason and Medea. He came back with the Argonauts. In Greece he married Perimele, the daughter of Admetus, and by her he had a son, Magnes (Table 33).
     
  4. The Argos who built the ship Argo (see Argonauts) and took part in the expedition in search of the Golden Fleece, seems to have been yet a fourth character. Homever he is sometimes regarded as being the son of Arestor, a relationship also claimed for Argos 2, and sometimes confused with the son of Phrixus (Argos 3).

{E2 DICTIONARY OF CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY}

Table of Sources:

  1. - Apollod. Bibl. 2, 1, 1ff.
    - Hyg. Fab. 123; 145; 155
    - Paus. 2, 16, 1; 2, 22, 6; 2, 34, 5; 3, 4, 1
     
  2. - Apollod. Bibl. 2, 1, 3
    - Hyg. Fab. 145
    - Macrob. Sat. 1, 19, 12
    - Prop. 1, 3, 20
    - Ovid. Met. 1, 583ff.
     
  3. - Hyg. Fab. 14
    - Apoll. Rhod. Arg. 2, 1122ff.
    - Apollod. Bibl. 1, 8, 9
     
  4. - Schol. on Apoll. Rhod., Arg. 1, 4
    - Ptol. Heph. 2
    - Apoll. Rhod. Arg. 1, 324ff.

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